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What can damage cell DNA?

What can damage cell DNA?

DNA damage occurs continuously as a result of various factors—intracellular metabolism, replication, and exposure to genotoxic agents, such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapy. If left unrepaired, this damage could result in changes or mutations within the cell genomic material.

Can damage DNA molecules?

DNA lesions involve physical damage. This includes changes to the chemical structure of the DNA molecule (numbers 2 and 3 in the list and diagram). DNA mutations involve changes to the sequence of base pairs (number 1 on the list and diagram). If DNA damage is not repaired, it can lead to mutations.

What causes the DNA blueprint in a cell to get damaged?

Ultraviolet and other types of radiation can damage DNA in the form of DNA strand breaks. This involves a cut in one or both DNA strands; double-strand breaks are especially dangerous and can be mutagenic, since they can potentially affect the expression of multiple genes.

How do cells repair damaged DNA?

Most damage to DNA is repaired by removal of the damaged bases followed by resynthesis of the excised region. Some lesions in DNA, however, can be repaired by direct reversal of the damage, which may be a more efficient way of dealing with specific types of DNA damage that occur frequently.

What causes cells to become damaged?

In principle, cell injury can occur due to the following factors: Excessive or overly prolonged normal stimuli. Action of toxins and other adverse influences that could inhibit the vital cell functions (e.g., oxidative phosphorylation or protein synthesis) Deficiency of oxygen and/or essential nutrients and metabolites.

Which causes the damage and errors in DNA?

DNA can be damaged via environmental factors as well. Environmental agents such as UV light, ionizing radiation, and genotoxic chemicals. Replication forks can be stalled due to damaged DNA and double strand breaks are also a form of DNA damage.

How do you induce DNA damage to cells?

Ionizing Radiation and Oxidative Stress. In cells, following exposure to ionizing radiation, DNA lesions can be produced directly or indirectly. The direct effect induces a one-electron oxidation of DNA, the indirect effect generates ROS through water radiolysis that can subsequently damage DNA.

Which rays can cause DNA damage leading to neoplastic transformation?

Ionizing radiation (such as gamma radiation) induces mutations in DNA and promotes malignancies such as leukemia, thyroid, lung, colon, and breast cancers.

How do mutations occur in DNA?

​Mutation. A mutation is a change in a DNA sequence. Mutations can result from DNA copying mistakes made during cell division, exposure to ionizing radiation, exposure to chemicals called mutagens, or infection by viruses.

What causes DNA mutations?

Mutations can result from DNA copying mistakes made during cell division, exposure to ionizing radiation, exposure to chemicals called mutagens, or infection by viruses.

What causes DNA oxidation?

ROS are generated from normal oxygen metabolism in cells and are recognized as a list of active molecules, such as O2•−, 1O2, H2O2 and, •OH . A nucleic acid can be oxidized by ROS through a Fenton reaction. To date, around 20 oxidative lesions have been discovered in DNA.

What causes damage to DNA in a cell?

Unfortunately, when levels of endogenous DNA damage are high, which might occur as the result of an inactivating mutation in a DNA repair gene, or when we are exposed to harmful exogenous agents like radiation or dangerous chemicals, the cell’s DNA repair systems become overwhelmed.

How does high energy radiation cause DNA damage?

High-energy radiation, like X-rays and gamma radiation, causes exogenous oxidative DNA base damage by interacting with water molecules to create highly reactive oxygen species, which then attack DNA bases at susceptible carbon atoms.

How does too much sunlight damage your DNA?

Fortunately, cells have repair mechanisms. Likewise, too much sunlight can damage DNA; a chemical reaction produces thymine dimers distorting DNA. The main inner source of DNA damage are ROS (reactive oxygen species), also known as free radicals, produced by cell metabolism.

How often does DNA damage occur in the body?

Let’s Begin…. The DNA in just one of your cells gets damaged tens of thousands of times per day. Because DNA provides the blueprint for the proteins your cells need to function, this damage can cause serious issues—including cancer.