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What are Morley-Minto reforms?

What are Morley-Minto reforms?

Indian Councils Act of 1909, also called Morley-Minto Reforms, series of reform measures enacted in 1909 by the British Parliament, the main component of which directly introduced the elective principle to membership in the imperial and local legislative councils in India.

Why were Morley-Minto reforms opposed 7 marks?

Ans: Congress opposed Morley-Minto reforms in 1909 due to number of reasons. Congress believed that it would increase divide in India and other communities would also demand for reserved seats. Congress considered separate electorate as old British policy of “divide and rule” to destroy the national feelings.

Who is Lord Minto 4?

Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound
Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto, KG, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, PC (/kɪˈnɪnmənd/; 9 July 1845 – 1 March 1914), known as Viscount Melgund by courtesy from 1859 to 1891, was a British peer and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the eighth since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and …

Who were Lord Morley and Minto?

It is also referred to as the Morley-Minto reforms named after the two British officials who played a key role in its drafting: Lord Minto and Lord John Morley, who were the Viceroy and Secretary of State of British India respectively in 1905-10.

What are the main provisions of Morley-Minto reforms?

The main provisions of Morley – Minto Reform are the introduction of a separate electorate for the Muslims, increasing the number of members in both Central (from 16 to 60 ) and Provincial Legislative Councils, introducing non-official majority in Provincial Legislative Council, Appointing an Indian into Viceroy’s …

Why did Morley-Minto reform?

Complete answer step by step: The aim of the Morley-Minto Reforms which were introduced in the year 1909 was to extend the Provincial Assemblies in India. As a part of these reforms, the number of elected members in the Imperial Legislative Council and the Provincial Legislative Councils was increased drastically.

What is Morley-Minto?

The Indian Councils Act 1909 (9 Edw. 4), commonly known as the Morley–Minto or Minto–Morley Reforms, was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.

Why were Morley-Minto reforms introduced?

Morley-Minto Reform was another name of the Indian Council Act of 1909, which was named after the secretary of state and the Viceroy. It was instituted to placate the moderates. The British also introduced communal electorates as a part of these reforms. This was meant to create disunity between Hindus and Muslims.

Who is Curzon 4 mark?

George Nathaniel Curzon, 1st Marquess Curzon of Kedleston, KG, GCSI, GCIE, PC, FBA (11 January 1859 – 20 March 1925), who was styled as Lord Curzon of Kedleston between 1898 and 1911, and as Earl Curzon of Kedleston between 1911 and 1921, and was known commonly as Lord Curzon, was a British Conservative statesman who …

What is Morley Minto?

Which act is known as Black Bill?

The British colonial government passed the Rowlatt Act which gave powers to the police to arrest any person without any reason whatsoever. On the report of the committee, headed by Justice Rowlatt, two bills were introduced in the Central Legislature on 6 February 1919. These bills came to be known as “Black Bills”.

What are the features of 1919 Act?

The Government of India Act of 1919, made a provision for classification of the central and provincial subjects. The Act kept the Income Tax as a source of revenue to the Central Government. However, for Bengal and Bombay, to meet their objections, a provision to assign them 25% of the income tax was made.

How did the Morley Minto Reforms get its name?

The Morley-Minto Reforms, so named after Morley, the secretary of state, and Minto, the viceroy at that time, were preceded by two important events. The Indian Councils Act of 1892 failed to meet the legitimate wishes of the Congress.

What did Lord Morley do in the Indian Councils Act of 1909?

The reforms of 1909 afforded no answer and could afford no answer to the Indian political problem. Lord Morley made it clear that colonial self-government (as demanded by the Congress) was not suitable for India, and he was against introduction of parliamentary or responsible government in India.

What was the purpose of the constitutional reforms of 1909?

The ‘constitutional’ reforms were, in fact, aimed at dividing the nationalist ranks by confusing the Moderates and at checking the growth of unity among Indians through the obnoxious instrument of separate electorates. The Government aimed at rallying the Moderates and the Muslims against the rising tide of nationalism.