Table of Contents
What are ADP ATP and inorganic phosphate?
Three phosphate groups are joined by covalent bonds. The electrons in these bonds carry energy. Within the power plants of the cell (mitochondria), energy is used to add one molecule of inorganic phosphate (P) to a molecule of adenosine diphosphate (ADP). ADP + P + Energy —> ATP.
Is the breakdown of ATP into ADP and inorganic phosphate an exergonic or endergonic reaction?
Since ATP hydrolysis releases energy, ATP synthesis must require an input of free energy. The phosphorylation (or condensation of phosphate groups onto AMP) is an endergonic process. By contrast, the hydrolysis of one or two phosphate groups from ATP, a process called dephosphorylation, is exergonic.
What happens to ADP and inorganic phosphate after ATP hydrolysis?
ADP can be further hydrolyzed to give energy, adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and another inorganic phosphate (Pi). It is the formation of new bonds and lower-energy inorganic phosphate with a release of a larger amount of energy that lowers the total energy of the system and makes it more stable.
Is the formation of ATP exergonic or Endergonic?
Adenosine triphosphate, the universal energy carrier, is a single nucleotide (adenine) with two extra phosphate groups attached. ATP is produced in great quantities by mitochondria. Energy released by the exergonic breakdown of glucose is used for: The endergonic production of ATP.
Where is high energy stored in ATP?
Energy is stored in the covalent bonds between phosphates, with the greatest amount of energy (approximately 7 kcal/mole) in the bond between the second and third phosphate groups. This covalent bond is known as a pyrophosphate bond. An analogy between ATP and rechargeable batteries is appropriate.
What type of reaction is ADP to ATP?
ADP is combined with a phosphate to form ATP in the reaction ADP+Pi+free energy→ATP+H2O. The energy released from the hydrolysis of ATP into ADP is used to perform cellular work, usually by coupling the exergonic reaction of ATP hydrolysis with endergonic reactions.
What is ADP and how is it generated?
What is ADP and how is it generated? Adenosine DiPhosphate – it is generated by removing a phosphate from ATP. The process of cellular respiration shown in #10 produces ATP by rejoining a phosphate group with the ADP molecule.
Is the hydrolysis of ATP reversible?
Like most chemical reactions, the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP is reversible. ATP can be hydrolyzed to ADP and Pi by the addition of water, releasing energy. ADP can be “recharged” to form ATP by the addition of energy, combining with Pi in a process that releases a molecule of water.
Is the formation of ATP Exergonic?
Cells couple the exergonic reaction of ATP hydrolysis with endergonic reactions to harness the energy within the bonds of ATP.
Which of the following are components of ATP?
ATP is a nucleotide that consists of three main structures: the nitrogenous base, adenine; the sugar, ribose; and a chain of three phosphate groups bound to ribose. The phosphate tail of ATP is the actual power source which the cell taps.
What is the relationship between ATP and ADP?
Thus, ATP is the higher energy form (the recharged battery) while ADP is the lower energy form (the used battery). When the terminal (third) phosphate is cut loose, ATP becomes ADP (Adenosine diphosphate; di= two), and the stored energy is released for some biological process to utilize.
How is ADP converted to ATP?
ADP is converted to ATP for the storing of energy by the addition of a high-energy phosphate group. The conversion takes place in the substance between the cell membrane and the nucleus, known as the cytoplasm, or in special energy-producing structures called mitochondria.
What kind of atoms are broken in ATP?
A carbon atoms in ATP is broken. B ribose and adenine in ATP is broken. C phosphate groups in ATP is broken. D two ATP molecules is broken. A A model of enzyme action is the A induced fit model.
Which is an example of which kind of reaction?
C They can affect processes in living things, either positively or negatively. D They are the only kind of functional group in organic molecules that contains oxygen. C The formation of ADP and inorganic phosphate from ATP and water is an example of which kind of reaction?
Which is a functional group in a phospholipid molecule?
All of the following are functional groups except A a hydroxyl group. B an amino group. C a carboxyl group. D a carbonate group. B A phospholipid molecule contains all of the following except A two fatty acids. B three fatty acids. C a phosphate group.
A Which organic molecule below is most closely related to proteins? A amino acids B CH2 chains C nucleotides D sugars C Long chains of amino acids are found in A carbohydrates. B lipids. C proteins. D sugars.